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3rd Annual Kidney Congress, will be organized around the theme “Fostering kidney health across the Globe ”
Kidney 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Kidney 2018
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The paired retroperitoneal organs i.e. kidneys are lie behind the peritoneum at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies at an oblique angle. Kidneys have a fibrous capsule, which is covered by pararenal fat. Kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, which consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and renal sinus which contains renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatic and perirenal fat. Cortex and medulla are the two layers of renal parenchyma. Renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids and the renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule, these are separated from each other by renal cortex named renal columns. Kidneys perform an important role, which includes filtration & excretion of metabolic waste products like urea and ammonium, maintain of electrolytes balance, fluid, and acid-base balance; and also for red blood cell production. They also important for regulate blood pressure through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, by controlling reabsorption of water they maintaining intravascular circulatory volume.
The kidneys reabsorb amino acids and glucose and have hormonal functions through the erythropoietin, vitamin D activation and calcitriol.
- Track 1-1Kidney
- Track 1-2Clinical Nephrology-General Aspects
- Track 1-3Nephroptosis
- Track 1-4Nephronophthisis
- Track 1-5Kidney Stones
- Track 1-6Inherited Kidney Diseases
- Track 1-7Kidney and Anemia
- Track 1-8New Kidney Diseases
- Track 1-9Minimal Change Disease
- Track 1-10Alport Syndrome
- Track 1-11IgA nephropathy
- Track 1-12Nephrotoxicity
- Track 1-13Kidney Failure
- Track 1-14Infection and Renal Disease
Acute renal failure (ARF), previously called acute kidney injury (AKI), is a sudden and unexpected loss of kidney function that develops within a week. Acute renal failure (formerly known as acute kidney injury) is a disease distinguished by the acute loss of the kidney's eliminatory function and is commonly diagnosed through the accumulation of urea and creatinine or reduced urine output, or both. Acute kidney injury may lead to a number of kidney problems, including high potassium levels, metabolic acidosis, changes in body fluid balance, uremia, also effects on other body systems ultimately leads to death. People who have experienced acute kidney injury may have high incidence of chronic kidney disease in the future. Controlling measures includes treatment of the root cause and supportive care, such as kidney transplantation.
- Track 2-1Acute Kidney Injury–Experimental Models
- Track 2-2Clinical Studies including Toxic Nephropathy
- Track 2-3Biomarkers for Acute Kidney Injury
- Track 2-4Acute Renal Failure–Clinical
- Track 2-5Acute Kidney Injury-Onco-Nephrology (Diseases)
- Track 2-6Acute Kidney Injury–Onco-Nephrology (Drugs)
- Track 2-7Acute Kidney Injury–Pregnancy (Pre-Eclampsia, TMA, HELLP, Other Causes)
- Track 2-8Acute Kidney Injury–Update on CRRT, SLED, etc.
- Track 2-9Extracorporeal Therapies - Intoxications, Overdoses, Liver Failure, etc.
End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.
- Track 3-1CKD: Fibrosis and Extracellular Matrix CKD
- Track 3-2Chronic Kidney Disease–Mesoamerican Nephropathy
- Track 3-3Infection (CKD 3-5)
- Track 3-4Nutrition (CKD 3-5)
- Track 3-5Anemia (CKD 3-5)
- Track 3-6Bone and Mineral Metabolism
- Track 3-7Epidemiology, Outcomes and Health Service Research in CKD
- Track 3-8Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis, Classification and Progression
- Track 3-9Cardiovascular Complications of CKD 3-5
- Track 3-10Acid Base and Electrolyte Abnormalities
- Track 3-11CKD Mineral and Bone Disorder
- Track 3-12Chronic Kidney Disease–Diseases and Drugs
The most common form of kidney replacement therapy is dialysis, is a way of cleaning the blood with artificial kidneys. There is of types of dialysis they are:
2. Peritoneal dialysis.
Hemodialysis required with the patients of renal failure. In this process of hemodialysis, an artificial kidney purifies blood. We should make an "access," usually in the forearm where blood can easily be taken from the body and sent to the artificial kidney for purification. The access collects blood from patient body and undergoes purification in artificial kidney and again injected the purified blood in to patient body.
In peritoneal dialysis no artificial kidney is used. The peritoneum (lining inside your abdomen) is used as a filter instead of artificial kidney. Peritoneal dialysis is of two types they are continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is used in kidney failure patients.
- Track 4-1Haemodialysis
- Track 4-2Membrane Function
- Track 4-3Membrane Biology
- Track 4-4Dialysis Solutions
- Track 4-5Palliative Care for CKD/ESRD
- Track 4-6Conservative Management of Advanced CKD (Vs. Dialysis)
- Track 4-7Clinical Studies in Renal Transplantation
- Track 4-8Transplantation: Basic Science and Immune Tolerance
- Track 4-9Epidemiology, Outcomes and Health Services Research in Dialysis
- Track 4-10Complications of Dialysis
- Track 4-11Vascular Access in Dialysis
- Track 4-12Extracorporeal Dialysis: Techniques and Adequacy
- Track 4-13Home Dialysis
- Track 4-14Peritoneal Dialysis
- Track 4-15Quality of Life in Dialysis
Kidney Transplantation is the way toward putting a solid kidney which assumes control over the work of cleaning blood by performing surgery in patients with kidney failure. It is delegated living contributor transplantation or perished benefactor transplantation on the wellspring of organ of the giver.
Kidney transplantation is the decision of treatment when kidneys fall flat alongside hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. kidney transplants are arranged into two sorts: those that originate from living contributors and those that originate from inconsequential givers who have kicked the bucket (non-living donors).Kidney transplant should be possible to patients who : withstand the impacts of surgery, immunosuppressant pharmaceutical, transplant has great shot of accomplishment, medicines after transplantation. Not at all like numerous different sorts of organ gift, it conceivable to give a kidney while you are alive on the grounds that you just need one kidney to survive.
- Track 5-1Advances in Kidney Transplantation
- Track 5-2Transplantation - Outcomes
- Track 5-3Transplantation – Immunosuppression
- Track 5-4Transplantation – Epidemiology
- Track 5-5Screening Tests
- Track 5-6Stem Cell Transplantation
- Track 5-7Acute Renal Allograft Rejection
- Track 5-8Post-Transplant Complications
- Track 5-9Pregnancy after Transplantation
- Track 5-10Dual Kidney Transplantation
- Track 5-11Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Track 5-12Transplantation Techniques
- Track 5-13Transplantation – Surgery
Pediatric Nephrology is a specialization in the diagnosis and management of children with different types of acute and chronic kidney-related diseases. The division assesses and treats hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, renal tubular acidosis, glomerulonephritis, nephrolithiasis, and kidney disorders. Various kidney diseases like pediatric nephritis is clinically and hereditarily heterogeneous substance portrayed by backsliding, and interminable course with noteworthy dreariness and mortality coming about because of intricacies of the sickness itself, and its treatment.
The Pediatric nephrology research clinical perceptions relating to any part of the wide range of intense and incessant maladies that influence renal capacity in kids and in addition on hypertension and liquid and electrolyte digestion system.
- Track 6-1Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology
- Track 6-2Clinical Pediatric Nephrology
- Track 6-3Pediatric Renal Failure
- Track 6-4Diagnostic Techniques
- Track 6-5Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Track 6-6Advances in Kidney Operation
- Track 6-7Pediatric Kidney Dialysis
- Track 6-8Pediatric Kidney Care
- Track 6-9Pediatric Kidney Failure Diet
Kidney cancer (also called renal adenocarcinoma or renal cell cancer) is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the lining of tubules in the kidney. We have two kidneys, behind the peritoneum one on each side of the spinal cord, just above the waist. Small tubules in the kidneys purify the blood. Unabsorbed products formed as urine. The formed urine passes in to bladder through long tube called bladder. The urine stored in bladder until leaves from body through urethra. Kidney cancer perhaps remains clinically occult for most of its course. Immunomodulatory agents and targeted therapy are the standard of care in metastatic disease patients.
Kidney cancer: The most common malignant disease affecting kidney is kidney cancer. One of the most common causes for kidney cancer is smoking.
- Track 7-1Renal cell carcinoma
- Track 7-2Types of renal cell carcinoma
- Track 7-3Renal cell carcinoma risk factors
- Track 7-4Pathophysiology
- Track 7-5Treatment and Outcomes
- Track 7-6Chemotherapy
- Track 7-7Immunotherapy
- Track 7-8Targeted Therapy
The diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.
If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body. If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.
If the damage continues for prolonged period the kidneys may fail. Actually, diabetes is the most common cause of renal failure in the U S. People with kidney failure should go for dialysis or kidney transplantation.
- Track 8-1Diabetic Nephropathy
- Track 8-2Diabetes Mellitus (Clinical)
- Track 8-3Diabetic Nephropathy–Biomarkers of Disease
- Track 8-4Intensive Management of Blood Glucose
- Track 8-5Genetics of Kidney Disease–Diabetic Kidney Disease
- Track 8-6Hypertension-Clinical and Experimental Models
- Track 8-7Renal Hemodynamics and Vascular Physiology
Kidney disease may also lead to heart disease or coronary illness because of this more than 20 million people died in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease induces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Coronary disease result for more than half of all deaths among individuals with CKD (Chronic kidney diseases). Indeed, even early or mellow renal disease ailment puts a man at higher danger of heart ailments and heart attacks and also heart disease-related death. Kidney dialysis patients who also have cardiovascular disease are died 10 to 30 times more than in the general cardiovascular patients. Diabetes and hypertension are major risk factors for heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Kidney disease (acute kidney disease or chronic kidney disease) can induce the danger of cardiovascular ill, even with hypertension, high cholesterol and concurrent diabetes. Recent researches show that kidney diseases (renal diseases) induces heart disease, even before the kidneys are harmed to the point of requiring dialysis or transplantation
Patients with a wide range of kidney infection and hypertension this also includes chronic or acute kidney diseases, kidney stones, because of any cause, resistant or secondary hypertension, cystic kidney diseases, inherited kidney diseases, unexplained proteinuria or hematuria, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis abnormalities, pregnancy-related kidney disorders, nephrotic, glomerulonephritis, vascular kidney diseases, and others. Hypertension occurs when the pressure of blood on the walls of blood vessels increases enough to bring about harm. For individuals who have diabetes or unending kidney infection, circulatory strain of 130/80 or more is viewed as high. A few sorts of kidney sickness may bring about hypertension. All the more frequently it is hypertension that causes kidney illness. Hypertension can accelerate the loss of kidney capacity in individuals with kidney disease.
- Track 9-1Cardiorenal syndrome
- Track 9-2Recent Advances in Glomerular Disorders and Hypertension
- Track 9-3Reno vascular hypertension, Anti hypersensitive therapy
- Track 9-4Hypertension, CKD and Diabetes
- Track 9-5Hypophosphatemia, Hyperuricemia, Hyperkalemia
- Track 9-6Kidney and Vascular Diseases
- Track 9-7Hypertension
- Track 9-8Modification of Cardiac Drugs in Renal Disease
- Track 9-9Diseases Affecting both Organs
- Track 9-10Effects of Cardiovascular Diseases on the Kidney
- Track 9-11Anemia and Erythropoietin, Renal Osteodystrophy
Abnormal glomerular function may leads to damage of glomerulus components such as capillary endothelium, mesangium and epithelium basement membrane. In renal biopsy we can see cellular and structural pattern of glomeruli injury by using electron microscopy, light microscopy.
The compartment of tubulointerstitial is damaged in all the forms of kidney disease. As per the time of examination and the intensity of the lesions, in vascular diseases and glomerular we can identify tubular damage in glomerular, interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy, fibrosis or edema. Tubular or acute interstitial damage can lead acute kidney failure, and prolonged changes are a best investigation of irreversible lesions and then they are great anticipation variables in vascular /glomerular diseases.
- Track 10-1Glomerulonephritis
- Track 10-2Acute Tubular Necrosis
- Track 10-3Acute Interstitial Nephritis Associated to Drugs
- Track 10-4Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis
- Track 10-5Specific Renal Infections
- Track 10-6Chronic Infectious Tin (Chronic Pyelonephritis)
- Track 10-7Tin Associated with Systemic Infection
- Track 10-8Acute Infectious Tubulointerstitial Nephritis (Tin)
- Track 10-9Chronic Pyelonephritis
- Track 10-10Acute Pyelonephritis
- Track 10-11Glomerulopathy
- Track 10-12Other Tubular Changes
The renal system maintain homeostasis in the body avoiding significant modifications in the balance of fluid electrolyte or acid–base parity until the Glomerular filtration rates reduced to below 25 ml/min because of a series of versatile changes, both Renal and extra renal. With dynamic decrease in renal capacity these components are overpowered bringing about unsettling influences in water digestion system adding to hypernatremia and hypernatremia. The modified control of sodium transport causes irritated volume status including volume over-burden and exhaustion. The rate of Hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis is more incessant in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with GFR beneath 10 ml/min. In this survey article we will endeavor to audit the renal and additional renal adjustment components looking after liquid, electrolyte and corrosive base equalization in endless kidney illness alongside variables which cause disappointment of these instruments. The article will likewise highlight the normal liquid electrolyte and corrosive base issue in interminable kidney ailment and their treatment.
- Track 11-1Disorders of Plasma Osmolality
- Track 11-2Respiratory Alkalosis
- Track 11-3Metabolic Alkalosis
- Track 11-4Respiratory Acidosis
- Track 11-5Metabolic Acidosis
- Track 11-6Physiology of Acid-Base System
- Track 11-7Disturbances of Plasma Calcium Concentration
- Track 11-8Disturbances of Plasma Potassium Concentration
- Track 11-9Disturbances of Plasma Sodium Concentration
- Track 11-10Hydration in Kidney Disease Prevention
- Track 11-11Electrolyte Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus
- Track 11-12Cardiovascular Calcification
The mineral and bone metabolism disorders (MBD) are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Conventionally, these disorders collectively called as renal osteodystrophy. We can see mineral and bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney diseases, Calcium and phosphorus levels in patient’s blood to be out of balance due to imbalance of hormones. This leads to kidney failure and dialysis.
The kidneys assume an essential part in keeping up sound bone mass and structure by adjusting phosphorus and calcium levels in the blood. Sound kidneys actuate a type of vitamin D that a man expends in sustenance, transforming it into calcitriol, the dynamic type of the vitamin. Calcitriol helps the kidneys keep up blood calcium levels and advances the arrangement of bone. The kidneys likewise expel additional phosphorus, adjusting levels of phosphorus and calcium in the blood. Maintain the best possible level of phosphorus in the blood keeps healthy bones.
- Track 12-1Mineral and Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease
- Track 12-2Mineral and Bone Disorder in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
- Track 12-3Treatment with Active Forms of Vitamin D
Renal or bladder stones are the crystals of such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid. If a kidney stone obstructs in urethra or the ureter, cause hematuria (blood in the urine), constant and severe pain in the back or side, fever, vomiting, or chills. Nephrolithiasis (Kidney stones): Minerals in urine form stones, which may build big enough to block flow of urine. Most kidney stones pass through urine on their own but some kidney stones are too large they cannot pass and should be treated.
Bladder stones are hard masses of minerals in your bladder. Bladder stones create when urine in your bladder gets to be concentrated, bringing about minerals in your urine to take shape. Concentrated, stagnant urine is regularly the aftereffect of not having the capacity to totally exhaust your bladder. On the off chance that bladder stones are sufficiently little, they can go all alone with no detectable indications. In any case, once they get to be bigger, bladder stones can bring about incessant inclinations to urinate, excruciating or troublesome pee and hematuria.
- Track 13-1Kidney stones
- Track 13-2Bladder Stones
- Track 13-3Treatment
- Track 13-4Surgery
- Track 13-5Artificial Kidney
- Track 13-6Nutrition
Under this category includes diseases of the urinary system, prostate gland including the kidneys and bladder. The bladder or urethra usually effected in urinary tract infections, yet more genuine and serious infections include the kidney. A bladder disease may bring about pelvic torment, expanded inclination to urinate, torment with pee and blood in the urine. Renal infection may bring about back agony, sickness, heaving and fever.
- Track 14-1Urethritis
- Track 14-2Urolithiasis and Endourology
- Track 14-3Trauma and Reconstruction
- Track 14-4Transplantation/Vascular Surgery
- Track 14-5Technology and Instruments
- Track 14-6Sexual Function and Infertility
- Track 14-7Pediatric Urology
- Track 14-8Oncology: Adrenal, Kidney, Prostate, Bladder, Urothelium and Urethra
- Track 14-9Infection and Inflammation
- Track 14-10Imaging and Radiology
- Track 14-11Female Urology
- Track 14-12Kidney and urology
- Track 14-13Prostate cancer
- Track 14-14Stones in the Urinary Tract
- Track 14-15Obstruction of the Urinary Tract
- Track 14-16Disorders of Urination
- Track 14-17Pyelonephritis
- Track 14-18Voiding Dysfunction/BPH
Some renal diseases like Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) are result from hereditary factors. In polycystic kidney disease number of cysts develops in the kidney, these cysts gradually replace the mass of kidney. Impairing kidney function and leading to renal failure.
Geriatric nephrology is a developing subspecialty of old patients. Patients who are living longer may obtain infections that quicken perpetual kidney diseases, which regularly remain undetected until patients are defied with the sudden requirement for dialysis. Renal cystic illness includes an extensive variety of sickness elements. They can be named either (1) inherited or obtained or (2) systemic or renal limited illnesses that have the normal element of numerous renal pimples. Every malady substance contrasts in its presentation, anticipation, and administration. Renal sores are smooth-walled, liquid filled round structures framed by central out pouching of renal tubules. In any case, huge steps have been made as of late. For autosomal predominant and autosomal passive polycystic kidney sicknesses (ADPKD and ARPKD), a photo is beginning to rise. Abandons in the essential ciliary detecting systems, intracellular calcium control, and cell cyclic AMP (cAMP) aggregation all appear to assume a part in the modified cell phenotype and capacities.
- Track 15-1Inherited Kidney Diseases
- Track 15-2Renal Cystic Diseases
- Track 15-3Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
- Track 15-4Kidney Disease in Elderly Diabetic Patients
- Track 15-5Drug Dosing and Renal Toxicity in the Elderly Patient
- Track 15-6Glomerular Disease in the Elderly
- Track 15-7Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, and the Elderly
- Track 15-8Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly with Kidney Disease
- Track 15-9Vascular Disease in the Elderly
Syndrome of protein-energy wasting consists of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities seen in chronic kidney disease. Maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential for people with renal disorders, especially if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, or both. Control and maintain of good blood glucose can help to prevent or postpone diabetic complications, including kidney disease. What you eat and drink may help slow down kidney disease. Dietitian can guide you how to select foods that are easier on your kidneys about protein, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and how to read food leaflets and labels.
- Track 16-1Nutrition Therapy
- Track 16-2Chronic Kidney Disease Diet
- Track 16-3Renal Supplements
- Track 16-4Physical Exercise
- Track 16-5Fluid Intake
- Track 16-6Low Sodium
- Track 16-7Low Potassium
- Track 16-8Low Phosphorous Diet
- Track 16-9Low Protein Diet
- Track 16-10Loss of Kidney Function Linked to Obesity
Nephrology nurses use the nursing process to care for patients of all ages who are experiencing, or are at risk for, kidney disease.
Nephrology nursing involves both preventing disease and assessing the health needs of patients and families. Care spans the life cycle and involves patients who are experiencing the real or threatened impact of acute or chronic kidney disease; therefore nephrology nurses must be well-educated, highly skilled, and motivated. These nurses also deal with every organ system in the body, calling for a holistic approach to patient care that is both challenging and rewarding.
Driven by technological and educational advances, nephrology nursing continues to be a dynamic field with a wide variety of career opportunities for nurses at all levels.
- Track 17-1Nephrology Nursing
- Track 17-2Nursing Management
- Track 17-3Critical care and Emergency Nursing
- Track 17-4Nursing education
- Track 17-5Clinical Nursing
- Track 17-6Rehabilitation Nursing
- Track 17-7Surgical Nursing
- Track 17-8Pediatric Nursing
- Track 17-9Kidney Cancer & Tumor Nursing
- Track 17-10Health Care and Management
- Track 17-11Kidney care Nursing
- Track 17-12Home dialysis nursing
- Track 17-13Cannulation
- Track 17-14Dialysis nursing
- Track 17-15Nurse Practitioner Updates
Healthy kidneys remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood. Blood and urine tests show how well the kidneys are doing their job and how quickly body wastes are being removed. Urine tests can also detect whether the kidneys are leaking abnormal amounts of protein, a sign of kidney damage. Imaging Tests uses sound waves to get a picture of the kidney. It may be used to look for abnormalities in size or position of the kidneys or for obstructions such as stones or tumors.
- Track 18-1Blood Tests
- Track 18-2Imaging Tests
- Track 18-3Kidney Biopsy
- Track 18-4Urine Tests
The kidneys are often targeted by pathogenic immune responses against renal auto antigens or by local manifestations of systemic autoimmunity. For the diagnosis renal pathologists use special tests and electron microscopes to detect the cells involved in diseases affecting the kidneys.
Kidney biopsies permit us to analyze renal disorders; review anticipations; help in the resolve of a precise restorative approach; and screen ailment movement in both local and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally abuse renal biopsy examples, a blend of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is used. Each microscopy requires distinctive strategies for fixation and preparing, so each renal biopsy centers are commonly separated into three sections. Contingent upon the length of the biopsy center or suspected illness process; in any case, the strategy for partitioning the biopsy center might be altered.
Your nephrologist will work to slow or control the reason of your kidney disease. Depending on the root cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Frequently, though, chronic kidney disease has no prevention. In the event that your kidneys turn out to be seriously harmed, you may require treatment for end-stage kidney diseases. In the event that your kidneys can't stay aware of waste and liquid freedom all alone and you create finish or close finish kidney disease, you have End-stage renal disorder. By then, dialysis or a kidney transplant is required. Since no particular in option and Ayurveda prescription for kidney can treat kidney disappointment successfully, the best technique is to join them. Immunotherapy, as one extraordinary leap forward in treating end-stage kidney sickness, is only a blend of cutting edge western restorative advances and customary home grown drugs.
- Track 20-1ACE Inhibitors
- Track 20-2Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (Arbs)
- Track 20-3Beta-Blockers
- Track 20-4Calcium Channel Blockers
- Track 20-5Direct Renin Inhibitors
- Track 20-6Diuretics
- Track 20-7Vasodilator